Problems, Issues and Disorders
Roslyn, Great Neck, Jericho and surrounding area

Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT)

Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) a specialized form of psychotherapy, is a highly effective approach to the treatment of many emotional and behavioral problems. It is solution-focused and often involves changing life-long patterns of self-defeating, negative, and occasionally catastrophic thinking. This approach places emphasis on achieving real change in thoughts, beliefs, feelings and behaviors, so as to yield notable improvement in one’s quality of life. The following Problems, Issues and Disorders are readily treatable within the context of Cognitive Behavior Therapy.

Roslyn, Great Neck, Jericho, and surrounding area – Anxiety

Anxiety is an emotional experience usually associated with some perceived imminent danger or threat (real or apparent) that is characterized by unpleasant and persistent mental tension, a pervasive sense of vulnerability, catastrophic thinking and an intolerance of uncertainty. In fact, with increasing levels of uncertainty anxiety worsens. Under certain circumstances anxiety may have a beneficial influence, as when it heightens our alertness and prepares us to take affirmative action. However, escalating levels of anxiety can lead to increased worrying, apprehension, nervousness and tension to a degree that interferes with our ability to carry out our activities of daily life, or may even lead to total incapacitation; heightened levels of anxiety are often accompanied by sleep disturbance, impaired concentration, intrusive thoughts and racing thoughts, by physical complaints such as headaches and other pain and discomfort, palpitations and rapid heartbeat, jitteriness, excessive sweating, cold extremities, shortness of breath as well as dizziness and light headedness.


Roslyn, Great Neck, Jericho, and surrounding area – Panic & Phobia

Panic & Phobia panic can be regarded as an episode of intense fear or severe, acute anxiety; often episodes of panic are associated with an anticipated loss of control and the feeling of being trapped, with an associated need to escape. One powerful fear often accompanying panic and the anticipated loss of control is the fear of embarrassing oneself. A frequent trigger of panic episodes is the anticipation of panic. In fact, panic is often considered a fear of fear. Phobia, or more precisely specific phobia, is an intense and persistent irrational fear or anxiety associated with a specific object, situation, or activity. In both panic and phobia, because of the intense nature of the fear and the resulting avoidance behavior, the individual experiences significant impairment in the conduct of his/her daily life.


Roslyn, Great Neck, Jericho, and surrounding area – PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder)

PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) is a disorder which can occur as a consequence to directly experiencing or witnessing life-threatening events such as terrorist incidents, military combat, natural disasters, serious accidents, or violent personal assaults like rape or mugging. This disorder can also result from protracted childhood or spousal abuse. The experience must have produced intense fear, helplessness or horror. Either soon after the incident or delayed by 6-months or longer, the individual may begin to experience flashbacks, recurring and intrusive memories of the event, feelings of emotional detachment or, emotional numbing, guilt, nightmares and other sleep problems, hyper-vigilance, extreme startle reaction as well as other physical complaints.


Roslyn, Great Neck, Jericho, and surrounding area – OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder)

OCD (Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder) is an anxiety disorder characterized by recurring distressful obsessions (persistent thoughts or ideas) or compulsions (pressured or uncontrollable behavior) which can be significant enough to interfere with one’s normal daily routine. The individual usually regards the thoughts or behaviors as unreasonable, but uncontrollable. The obsessional thought generates anxiety which the compulsive act is meant to assuage. Attempts at resisting either the obsession or the compulsion may lead to a dramatic worsening in anxiety.


Roslyn, Great Neck, Jericho, and surrounding area – Depression

Depression is a mood disorder characterized by a pessimistic style of thinking, a sense of helplessness, hopelessness and worthlessness and a general feeling of inadequacy. The predominant mood is one of pervasive sadness, often with irritability. Depression is frequently accompanied by a noticeable change in appetite with either significant weight loss or weight gain, not attributable to dieting, a noticeable change in sleeping patterns such as restless sleep, inability to sleep, early morning awakening, or sleeping too much, loss of energy, fatigue, inappropriate feelings of guilt, inability to concentrate or think clearly, indecisiveness as well as a loss of interest or pleasure in activities formerly enjoyed.


Roslyn, Great Neck, Jericho, and surrounding area – Anger

Anger is a strong passion or emotion conveying displeasure or antagonism, and may range in intensity from mild irritation to fury and rage. Anger may lead to either positive or negative outcomes. In a positive vein, anger may be considered an empowering emotion, often helpful in defending against and overcoming our feelings of psychological paralysis: feelings of powerlessness, helplessness and resignation, which are generally associated with depression, frustration and fear. Alternatively, anger which is unrelenting, seething and pernicious, and especially when suppressed, may result in various systemic illnesses such as high blood pressure, heart disease and stroke as well as severe intrapsychic distress and interpersonal and marital conflict. Anger that is inappropriate to the extreme and where the individual experiences his/her anger as "out of control" or explosive may lead to even more disastrous psychological, medical or legal consequences.


Roslyn, Great Neck, Jericho, and surrounding area – Marital Discord

Marital Discord is a disruption to a marital relationship beginning as mild disagreement; continued conflict may lead to escalating arguments, which in the extreme case may result in separation, divorce or domestic violence. The most common bases for marital discord appears to be: lack of communication or chronic miscommunication, constant arguing, complaints of unfulfilled emotional needs, sexual dysfunction, differences in sexual drive, financial distress, in-law issues, infidelity, conflict over child-rearing practices, alcoholism, verbal and physical abuse.


Stress Related Disorders are disorders in which psychological factors such as stress and anxiety lead to temporary physical complaints such as headaches and other physical discomfort or worse, contribute to the development of various chronic systemic illnesses, such as irritable bowel syndrome, psoriasis, eczema, high blood pressure, coronary artery disease and stroke; increased susceptibility to infectious disease may also occur as a result psychological stress interfering with the functioning of the autoimmune system. Stress and anxiety have also been found to contribute to problems of impotence and infertility.


Roslyn, Great Neck, Jericho, and surrounding area – Grief & Bereavement

Grief & Bereavement Grief is a reaction to a significant or catastrophic loss. Characterized by extreme sadness and mental anguish, it may be triggered by the death of a loved one, divorce or marital separation, loss of a job, loss of ones home or some other significant loss. Bereavement is the period after a loss during which grief is experienced and the mourning process occurs. The time spent in a period of bereavement depends on the nature of the experienced loss. When the period of bereavement is prolonged, it may result in the development of various psychological disorders.


Roslyn, Great Neck, Jericho, and surrounding area – ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)

ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) is a chronic, developmental disorder beginning before age 8-years and lasting 6-months or longer. The presence of ADHD makes it difficult for children and adults to focus their attention and control their behavior. Symptoms of the disorder vary from individual to individual, and can range from mild to severe; ADHD symptoms of poor concentration or inattention, distractibility, disorganization, impatience, hyperactivity and impulsivity continue into adulthood for about 70 percent of the children affected. Overt hyperactivity, however, seems to diminish somewhat during the course of adolescence and appears to be partially replaced in adulthood by an internal feeling of restlessness. ADHD has been classified into three sub-types: inattentive, hyperactive-impulsive and combined type and is related to impairment in school, occupational and social settings, as well as to an increased risk of marital discord, separation and divorce.


Roslyn, Great Neck, Jericho, and surrounding area – ODD (Oppositional Defiant Disorder)

(ODD) Oppositional Defiant Disorder is represented by a wide range of problem behaviors in childhood and adolescents, usually beginning before age 8-years and continuing thru 18-years, lasting a minimum of 6-months. Children and adolescents can be oppositional and defiant of authority figures, such as parents, teachers and other adults, from time to time. However, when there is an enduring pattern of defiant, hostile, and uncooperative behavior toward authority figures which results in serious impairment in family, social, academic and work settings, Oppositional Defiant Disorder should be considered. This disorder is almost invariably found to be present in the home, and may be present in other settings, such as in school.


Roslyn, Great Neck, Jericho, and surrounding area – Other Behavioral Disorders of Childhood & Adolescents

Other Behavioral Disorders of Childhood & Adolescents are characterized by various non-specific behavioral problems of childhood and adolescence. These problems may include such disparate behaviors as disruptive classroom and home behaviors, social withdrawal, ineffective coping with being bullied, inability to sleep in one’s own bed, bed-wetting, fear of being alone, fear of going away to camp and other assorted fears and aversions.


Roslyn, Great Neck, Jericho, and surrounding area – Sleeping Disorders

Sleeping Disorders are generally characterized in three ways: insomnias, hypersomnolence and parasomnias. Insomnia refers to difficulty falling asleep, difficulty remaining asleep and early morning awakening; Hypersomnolence refers to excessive drowsiness or inability to remain awake; Parasomnias, which are disorders associated with sleep and/or disorders which interfere with sleep, include sleep sleepwalking, sleep talking, bed-wetting, night terrors, nightmares, periodic leg movements of sleep, narcolepsy, cataplexy and sleep apnea.

Robert M. Cristal Ph.D